An Annotated Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of Texas, with Keys to Identification of Species, 2nd Edition
Forty-nine families and 268 species of fishes are known to inhabit the freshwaters of Texas. We report on the distribution and status of these fishes and provide a key to their identification. Of the native fishes originally found in Texas, five taxa, Cyprinella lutrensis blairi (Maravillas red shiner), Notropis orca (phantom shiner), N. simus simus (Rio Grande bluntnose shiner), Gambusia amistadensis (Amistad gambusia) and G. georgei (San Marcos gambusia) are apparently extinct, and four, Hybognathus amarus (Rio Grande silvery minnow), Notropis simus pecosensis (Pecos bluntnose shiner), Oncorhynchus clarki virginalis (Rio Grande cutthroat trout) and Gambusia senilis (blotched gambusia) appear to be extirpated from the state. Over 40 percent of the remaining primary freshwater species are of conservation concern and in some need of protection.